Tag Archives: lighting

Assignment 4: Applying lighting techniques

The brief:

Choose any subject that you can move around and take 8 photos based on the 4 themes of the assignment.

  • Shape – this quality has to do with the outline of an object – its edges. These are likely to stand out more clearly if they contrast with the background, and if there is minimum detail visible in the object.
  • Form – this is another way of describing the volume of an object – how 3 dimensional it looks. the modelling effect of the light and the way you deal with the shadows is all important. Try to show as much depth as possible in the subject.
  • Texture – this is a quality of the surface detail. Fine detail, such as that on sandstone or skin, stands out best with a pattern of small, hard shadows, so you will have to consider both the diffusion (or lack of it) and the angle of the light. Of course, a shiny surface like chrome, although it is thought of as being smooth, also has a texture of a kind.
  • Colour – choose a kind of lighting and exposure setting that shows the subject’s colour (or colours) as strongly as possible. In addition, you could photograph your subject in any other interesting, unusual or attractive lighting.

I started this section of the course with much trepidation. I was going to have to use my speedlight which I have not seriously used with any degree of creativity or understanding in over two years. But as I got into the photographic lighting section and worked through some of Light, Science & Magic, I found myself getting more into it and I quite enjoyed some of the challenges that arose. Frustrations, yes there were plenty. I conceived grand ideas that I couldn’t always bring to fruition. My original plan of doing half the images in natural lighting or outdoors (originally inspired by fellow OCA student, Tim Dunk, of giraffe fame) were blown away by a series of Pineapple Expresses (for the past week we have been having about 100 – 200 mm of rain per day). Its rather crazy – every assignment seems to be plagued by rainfall. But then Vancouver does get more than double the rainfall that the UK does!

I have drawn my inspiration from a few sources, namely Rembrandt van Rijn who has to be one of the masters of lighting, Caravaggio, Joe McNally and Francis Giacobetti who I just recently discovered while looking at Stephanie dh’s TAOP website (thanks Stephanie). His use of colour and chiaroscuro are phenomenal and his geometric use of light just mind boggling to a mathematically challenged person like me.  I have not done a review on his work yet, but will definitely do so soon when I am not under the gun. I am totally in awe of his work. My planning post for this assignment can be seen here.


Shape 01

Shape 01
f8, 1/100, 34mm, ISO 100

One way to show the shape of an object is to photograph it backlit, thus creating a silhouette. I set up a red backdrop on the outside of my light tent and put my flash inside the tent pointing up about 75 degrees and set my mannequin’s head in profile position. Post processing was limited to adding a bit of contrast and clarity, lifting the shadows slight, and increasing the exposure by 1/3 stop.

Shape 02

Shape 02
f8, 1/125, 32mm, ISO 100

Still keeping the head in a profile position, I then switched the backdrop to white and set my flash on camera left about 45 degrees and moved it back quite a bit as I wanted to get a hard shadow to show the shape of the mannequin’s head. Post processing was limited to a custom white balance, adding a tiny bit of contrast and clarity and bringing down the highlights a tad.


Form 01

Form 01
f8, 1/100, 30mm, ISO 100

To show form, or three-dimensionality, I put the flash slightly to camera right and turned the mannequin’s head slightly to the right. This gives a pleasant butterfly lighting under the nose and a slight shadow under the bottom lip, but at the same time a bit of short lighting on the cheek closest to the camera which give form to the cheek apples. There are soft shadows on the left side of the nose and in the zygomatic arch around the eye and some highlights around the throat and shoulder area which help to provide depth to the subject. Only shadows were lifted during post processing.

Form 02

Form 02
f8, 1/125, 34mm, ISO 100

To show more depth I decided to use Rembrandt lighting for Form 02, so I placed the flash 45 degrees to camera right and raised the flash to about 14 inches above the head of the mannequin. An overhead ceiling light and a torch held slightly behind the subject on camera right provided some needed hairlight to separate the subject from the background. A diffusion panel was held in front of the flash to soften the angle of the shadows slightly. Flash power was 1/8. The contrast between the shadows and hightlights give the three-dimensionality to the subject. The only post processing done was to add 1/3 stop exposure.


Texture 01

Texture 01
f8, 1/125. 45mm, ISO 100

Texture is best lit from the side, with the light raking over the subject. As this subject is rather smooth I chose to put a knitted beret on her head to add more texture to the scene. I first tried side lighting, but the lighting was not right for the mannequin. After some trial and error in moving my light around, I chose to light from camera right at 45 degrees, and positioned the flash just slightly above her head with a diffusional panel between the light and the subject, so that I could achieve black shadows in the ribbing of the knitted beret and to get a Rembrandt lighting effect on the cheek as well. Post processing was limited to adding contrast, clarity and opening shadows a little.

Texture 02

Texture 02
f8, 1/125, 110mm, ISO 100

For my second Texture photograph, I chose to zoom in on the mannequin’s face with my 50-200mm lens and focus on the eyes, so that the texture of the eyelashes and hair could be seen. The light was to camera right at 45 degrees. Post processing was bringing up the exposure by 2/3s of a stop, adding a bit of contrast and clarity.


Colour 01

Colour 01
f8, 1/125, 35mm, ISO 100

The colour series proved to be the most challenging for me and probably the most enjoyable as well. As mentioned above, my inspiration for this photo was Francis Giacobetti’s work which I am in awe of. His Cuba Music set was my inspiration for this image. As it is Valentine’s day soon I chose to use red as my colour for this image. I used a long strip, folded four times of red cellophane paper and wrapped it around my homemade pipecleaner gridspot and secured the paper in place with an elastic band. The light was to camera left and about level with the mannequin’s eyes and positioned about 2 feet away. I placed a black card on the right hand side of the subject to block any light spillage from behind the subject. I dialed the flash power down to either 1/8 or 1/16 (unfortunately I did not make a note). Joe McNally (2009, p 234) says:

“Want mo’ better color? Less gas. Slow it down. Let the gel marinate the white light passing through it to a nice, spicy rich color. … make sure the gel covers the whole surface of the light, and tightly. If you have white light bleeding through – in other words, ungelled light from the flash flying out and about – it will mix with the gelled light and soften the intensity of the color. So be careful. Seal the gels on there with tape. Don’t let white light escape!”

The image turned out better than I’d imagined and I particularly like the rapid fall off of light, the loupe lighting around her nose and the dark shadow on the right cheek. Contrast, clarity and vibrance were added in post processing.

Colour 02

Colour 02
f8, 25 seconds, 46mm, ISO 100

For my final colour image I again drew on inspiration from Francis Giacobetti and his Beauty series. The specific image that caught my attention was number 8 in the series. Once again I had a black card to the right of the image to block the light.  I took a small LED torch, wrapped an 8 inch black foam card around the front of the torch to form a tight snoot. I then played around with exposure time to find an optimal time to paint the mannequin’s face. I first took my folded green cellophane paper, held it over the snoot’s opening and painted the left side of the face for approximately 11 seconds, switched over to red cellophane paper and painted the right side of the face for the remainder of the time, taking care to paint over the hair as well. I found it rather tricky to get the catchlights in the eyes doing this, but quickly figured out that the eyes need a bit of extra painting. I think I may have overpainted the right cheekbone slightly as it is a tad bright, but on the other hand it does provide some sculpting to the face. Post processing involved adding a tiny bit of contrast and clarity to boost the colours ever so slightly.


Demonstration of technical and visual skills (materials, techniques, observational skills, visual awareness, design and compositional skills)

My equipment used for this assignment were my 18-55 mm and 55-200 mm lenses, tripod, remote shutter release, Nikon Speedlight SB 700, Yongnuo RF-603N II wireless triggers, light stand, coloured cellophane paper, homemade grid spot. Because my subject lends itself to portraiture, I have taken care to keep the eyes on one of the rule of thirds line.

Quality of Outcome (content, application of knowledge, presentation of work in a coherent manner, discernment, conceptualisation of thoughts, communication of ideas)

It has been during this assignment that I’ve been able to relate to other photographers’ for inspiration. I think the penny has finally dropped and I think for future assignments I will find myself looking for photographers who inspire/talk to me very early on so that I can research them properly.

I am quite happy with my set of images. Certainly there is always room for improvement, but I think I am at a far more comfortable place using my flash now than I was two years ago. I guess it’s just a question of allowing oneself to experiment and get things wrong and see what works.

Demonstration of Creativity (imagination, experimentation, invention, development of a personal voice)

Due to the static and rather limited nature of this assignment, I think I have achieved a small degree of creativity on a couple of my images – mainly the colour set. I probably spent the majority of my time working on the colour set. I can see that I favour low key images and that is true. I definitely prefer the dramatic shots for portrait work, but I do realise that it can’t be used in all cases. Yes, I have most certainly experimented in this assignment. I would say most of it was down to experimentation, trial and error and figuring things out. The series is not as imaginative as I had originally intended (weather not playing nicely).

Context (reflection, research, critical thinking)

I was quite pleased that I was able to attend more exhibitions during the time leading up to this assignment than in previous ones. The exhibitions that I attended were:

I was again lucky to have a gallery respond favourably to one of my reviews, namely the Shimabuku review. The response can be seen here.

I have gained a much better understanding about light and I now find myself looking for lighting patterns when viewing movies on TV. I looked at numerous flash tutorials on the website, too numerous to mention, some helpful and others not so much. I drafted a quick and dirty reminder for myself on lighting terminology, which includes a great video tutorial by Mike Wallace on the Inverse Square Law – the visual application is so much easier to understand than the mathematical one. I also viewed most of Kevin Kubota’s online workshop on building and using DIY lighting gear. Also worth mentioning is Glyn Dewis’ tutorial on how to create an invisible black background, something which I used quite extensively during this assignment:

My camera club featured a hands-on workshop on abstract photography, presented by Canadian photographers, Russ and Wendy Kwan, which I found incredibly interesting and will definitely experiment a bit with that, hopefully in a later assignment.

I managed to connect with another fellow OCA student here in Canada, which was great. We arranged a time for a Skype meeting just after Christmas and although she is doing Textiles degree, we found a lot of similarities and common ground in our courses. We live in different provinces, about 1,500 km apart, but have resolved to meet at least once a month to touch base with each other. It would be great if a few more North and South American fellow OCA students can join in.

A couple of photographers inspired enough me to write up reviews on their work:

Book Reviews:

Artists Reviews:

It was my intention to have added Sontag to the reading list for this assignment, but alas I’m finding it difficult to concentrate when I read her. By the end of assignment 5 I fully intend to have finished and reviewed Sontag’s On Photography.

I have decided that I am also going to try and purchase some of the exhibition catalogues of the exhibitions in the UK. In that way I can keep up with my fellow students and take part in their conversations about the exhibitions. I guess its the next best thing to attending the big, well-known exhibitions, but the book is definitely cheaper than the plane ticket.


Giacobetti, Francis. Francis Giacobetti [online]. Available from: http://www.francisgiacobetti.com/ [Accessed 5 February, 2015]

McNally, Joe (2009). The Hotshoe Diaries: Big Light from Small Flashes. Berkeley: New Riders


Freeman, Michael (2013). Capturing LIght: The Heart of Photography. Lewes, England: The Ilex Press.

Hunter, Fil et al, (2012). Light—Science & Magic An Introduction to Photographic Lighting. 4th ed. Oxford: Focal Press

McNally, Joe (2008). The Moment it Clicks. Berkeley: New Riders

Peterson, Bryan (2011). Understanding Flash Photography. New York: Amphoto Books

van Niekerk, Neil (2013). Direction & Quality of LIght. Buffalo, New York: Amherst Media, Inc.

van Niekerk, Neil (2009). On-Camera Flash: Techniques for Digital Wedding and Portrait Photography. Buffalo, New York: Amherst Media, Inc.



Building and Using DIY Lighting Gear

Creative Live has some wonderful online workshops that run free during the day on Pacific Standard Time from 9:00 am – 4:00 pm and then is repeated (again for free) right afterwards. I was lucky enough to catch most of Kevin Kubota’s workshop on Building and Using DIY Lighting Gear. In his workshop he covers a variety of subjects, from rules of lighting, building a scrim, v-flats, triple reflector v-flat, v-flat window box, building a snoot, lighting with a flashlight, making a beauty dish, tube lights, ring light and photo booth, to name just a few. He also demonstrates how to use everything. as well. It is really amazing that one can pretty much build effective studio equipment for a nominal amount.

A free preview can be seen on this website: https://www.creativelive.com/courses/building-and-using-diy-lighting-gear-kevin-kubota.


Kubota, Kevin, 2014. Building and Using DIY Lighting Gear [online]. Creative Live. Available from: https://www.creativelive.com/courses/building-and-using-diy-lighting-gear-kevin-kubota [Accessed 22 December, 2014]


Exercise: Variety with a low sun

The brief:

You can choose any subjects for this project, but they must be in sunlight. Take as many pictures as possible, but aim to produce four as a final result as follows:

  • frontal lighting, with the sun behind the camera, striking the subject fully
  • side lighting, with the sun to the left or right. More or less half of the subject will be lit, half in shadow.
  • back lighting, shoot towards the light.
  • edge lighting, this is a special condition for shooting towards the sun, in which the sun is outside the viewfinder frame and the edge of the subject is lit.

It had snowed during the night (which provided a nice bokeh in some of my photos) and I persuaded my youngest son who had just returned from a trail run up the mountain to pose for me in the back garden. The photos were taken just a little over an hour before sunset and shot with daylight white balance. The only post processing involved was cropping.

Fig 01 - frontal lighting

Fig 01 – frontal lighting
f2.5, 1/4000, 50mm, ISO 100

The sun, even at this low angle is still strong, so I had my son face the sun directly and turn his head just a tad towards me. The light is quite harsh. With the focal point on my son, the background is thrown into shadow.

Fig 02 - side lighting

Fig 02 – side lighting
f2.5, 1/2000, 50mm, ISO 100

The side lighting creates a more dramatic look with half the face in the shadows, but is still a bit harsh. There is definitely more visual interest than in the frontal lighting image. It would have been nice to have a reflector handy to get rid of the dark shadow under his eye on camera right.

Fig 03 - back lighting

Fig 03 – back lighting
f2.5, 1/2000, 50mm, ISO 100

I have noticed previously when taking backlit photos that there always seems to be an atmospheric haze to the image, which is quite visible in this photo. The sun has cast a bit of a rim light around my son’s head and shoulders creating a nice separation from the background (a walnut tree). With the sun positioned behind him – even though he is standing fully in the sun – I’m seeing a slight blue cast to the photograph. A switch to cloudy white balance would have warmed the image slightly.

Fig 04 - edge lighting

Fig 04 – edge lighting
f2.8, 1/640, 50mm, ISO 100

A slight swivel on the heel for my son and I have (hopefully) edge lighting. The sun is still behind my son, but the light is now wrapping around the side of his head, ear, neck and shoulder (camera right side) and creating a nice jawline. The edge light is a soft light.

Exercise – Judging colour temperature 1

The brief:

For this exercise you will need a subject that you can move around and which does not have a strong colour. A friend’s face would do well. The other thing that you will need is less reliable – very clear weather. Take three photographs, one in full sunlight during the middle of the day (that is mid morning to mid afternoon), one in shade during the middle of the day, and one in sunlight when the sun is close to the horizon. Make sure that the camera’s White balance is set to ‘daylight’.

The temperature of the sunlight varies throughout the day. Between the hours of 10 am and 4 pm it has a temperature of approximately 5500 kelvin. The harshest light occurs around noon where the overhead light casts hard shadows and creates raccoon-like shadows under people’s eyes. Evening light occurs when the sun loses its power and casts long shadows. Evening light is usually stronger than morning light.

It was a beautiful winter’s day, free from rain, with big, billowing clouds and blue sky, so for this exercise, I cajoled my husband into modelling for me.

Fig 01 - In sun - daylight setting

Fig 01 – In sun – daylight setting
f2.8, 1/800, 50mm, ISO 100

The sun was rather bright for the first image so I told my husband to look off to the side so as not to squint at the camera. This white balance setting renders all the colours true. With the sun shining on his face, my husband has a healthy glow on his face.

Fig 02 - In shade - daylight setting

Fig 02 – In shade – daylight setting
f2.8, 1/100, 50mm, ISO 100

With a daylight white balance taken in the shade, all colours are rendered with a blueish tint. The image appears visually colder. My husband’s brown camo cap now has a magenta tint to it, while his teal coloured jacket is now blue. His complexion is also more pink.

Fig 03 - In sun close to the horizon - daylight setting

Fig 03 – In sun close to the horizon – daylight setting
f3.5, 1/100, 50mm, ISO 200

In order to get the image where the sun is close to the horizon, we headed down to the beach and waited for the sunset. The sun had just touched the horizon when I took this photo. The warm glow of the sun renders a lovely light on the face, at the same time warming the colours of the clothing, intensifying the brown colour of the cap and turning the jacket into a brown colour.

The side by side comparison can be seen in the collage below. I cropped the last image to fit into a portrait mode.

Fig 04 - Daylight settings taken in full sun, shade and with the sun close to the horizon

Fig 04 – Daylight settings taken in full sun, shade and with the sun close to the horizon

The sunlight image was as I expected it to be. I was quite surprised by the cooler tones rendered in the shade as they did not seem that much cooler when I positioned my husband in the shade. I was expecting the overall tone to be visually cooler but not by so much. The warm glow on the face during the sunset is the same as I remember it, but what did surprise me was the tonal change in the clothing. Mind you I was paying more attention to the face than the clothing.

Reference List

Prakel, David, 2007. Basics Photography 02 – Lighting. Ava Publishing, London.

Lighting by David Präkel

Lighting by David PräkelI have just finished the book Lighting by David Präkel. The book is what I would classify as a “What is ….?” book. It is basically a compendium of terminology with definitions arranged in a logical sequence. The book deals with the basic theory of light, colour theory of light, polarized light, the various types of natural light, types of available light, studio lighting, how studio lighting is controlled and how to use light to create shape, form and texture. At the end of each chapter there is an exercise which can be used to practise the various techniques. Many of these exercises are similar to those in the course book. I found the studio lighting section particularly interesting as most of the studio equipment and their uses were explained really well. Definitely a good reference book to have around.

Reference List

Präkel, David (2013). Basics Photography 02: Lighting. Lausanne, Switzerland: AVA Publishing SA.

Story on a Plate: Food Photography & Styling

I have been doing some research into food photography which is one of the subjects I can choose from for Assignment Two and I came across a 32 minute video on lighting for food on Creative Live’s website. The photographers presenting the workshop, Todd Porter and Diane Cu-Porter, approached the lighting experience in similar fashion as the exercise I did for multiple points, where one starts with one item, takes a shot, adds another item, takes a shot and so on. Apparently this is the approach they always use when on assignment. They encouraged the use of natural light for food photography as far as possible as this does eliminate colour cast problems and the food just looks nicer in natural light. They did their demonstration on a punnet of cherries and Todd demonstrated how he looked for the best angle to show off the cherries. The first shot is always done with no reflectors or diffuser so that there is a good starting reference. Gradually a black foamboard was added to make the shot moodier, then another and finally a third was added to create a very dramatic effect. Todd then switched to show how the same punnet of cherries would photograph if backlit. This time white reflectors were added, again one at a time. I found this short video to be extremely informative and down to earth and I will be using these techniques in my assignment.


Unfortunately it doesn’t seem that I can link directly to the video, so there is an extra step to get to it. Click on the link above and once you access this page, be sure to click on the photo of the cherries just below the larger introductory screen (as seen below). You will then be able to view this informative video.

Free Preview: Shoot: Cherries

Free Preview: Shoot: Cherries

Workshop, Todd Porter and Diane Cu-Porter – Story on a Plate: Food Photography & Styling [webcast, online] Creative Live, Seattle, USA, June 2014. 32 minutes: 48 seconds. https://www.creativelive.com/courses/story-plate-food-photography-styling-todd-porter-and-diane-cu (accessed 27, July, 2014)